Quick Answer: What Type Of Study Is Case Control?

When would you use a case control study?

When is a Case-Control Study Desirable?When the disease or outcome being studied is rare.When the disease or outcome has a long induction and latent period (i.e., a long time between exposure and the eventual causal manifestation of disease).When exposure data is difficult or expensive to obtain.When the study population is dynamic.More items…•.

Does a cohort study need a control group?

Cohort studies differ from clinical trials in that no intervention, treatment, or exposure is administered to participants in a cohort design; and no control group is defined. Rather, cohort studies are largely about the life histories of segments of populations, and the individual people who constitute these segments.

What are the characteristics of a cohort study?

The characteristic feature of a cohort study is that the investigator identifies subjects at a point in time when they do not have the outcome of interest and compares the incidence of the outcome of interest among groups of exposed and unexposed (or less exposed) subjects.

What does cohort study mean?

Definition. A study design where one or more samples (called cohorts) are followed prospectively and subsequent status evaluations with respect to a disease or outcome are conducted to determine which initial participants exposure characteristics (risk factors) are associated with it.

How do you identify a cohort study?

The cohort study design is the best available scientific method for measuring the effects of a suspected risk factor. In a prospective cohort study, researchers raise a question and form a hypothesis about what might cause a disease. Then they observe a group of people, known as the cohort, over a period of time.

What is the purpose of the control group in a case control study?

The purpose of the control group is to determine the relative size of the exposed and unexposed components of the source population.

What is the difference between a case control and cohort study?

Whereas the cohort study is concerned with frequency of disease in exposed and non-exposed individuals, the case-control study is concerned with the frequency and amount of exposure in subjects with a specific disease (cases) and people without the disease (controls).

What is the meaning of case control study?

A study that compares patients who have a disease or outcome of interest (cases) with patients who do not have the disease or outcome (controls), and looks back retrospectively to compare how frequently the exposure to a risk factor is present in each group to determine the relationship between the risk factor and the …

Who are the subjects in a case control study?

By definition, a case-control study is always retrospective because it starts with an outcome then traces back to investigate exposures. When the subjects are enrolled in their respective groups, the outcome of each subject is already known by the investigator.

How do you read a case control study?

Greater than 1.0 indicates that the odds of exposure among case-patients are greater than the odds of exposure among controls. The exposure might be a risk factor for the disease. Less than 1.0 indicates that the odds of exposure among case-patients are lower than the odds of exposure among controls.

What are the strengths of a case control study?

Advantages and Disadvantages of Case-Control StudiesThey are efficient for rare diseases or diseases with a long latency period between exposure and disease manifestation.They are less costly and less time-consuming; they are advantageous when exposure data is expensive or hard to obtain.More items…•

What are types of studies?

The main types of studies are randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, case-control studies and qualitative studies.

What type of study is a cross sectional study?

In medical research, social science, and biology, a cross-sectional study (also known as a cross-sectional analysis, transverse study, prevalence study) is a type of observational study that analyzes data from a population, or a representative subset, at a specific point in time—that is, cross-sectional data.

How do you set up a case control study?

Five steps in conducting a case-control studyDefine a study population (source of cases and controls) … Define and select cases. … Define and select controls. … Measure exposure. … Estimate disease risk associated with exposure. … Confounding factors. … Matching. … Bias.

What is an example of a prospective study?

Famous Prospective Study Examples. … The Framingham Heart Study is one example of a prospective cohort study; The researchers have, to date, studied three generations of Framingham residents in order to understand the causes of heart disease and stroke.

Is a case control study quantitative?

Experiments done in a laboratory will almost certainly be quantitative. … In a health care context, randomised controlled trials are quantitative in nature, as are case-control and cohort studies. Surveys (questionnaires) are usually quantitative .

What are the disadvantages of case control studies?

The disadvantages are the following.They are prone to selection bias and recall bias.It is difficult to establish temporal causality. … Case-control studies are not suitable for studying rare exposures because it would be difficult to recruit the required sample size.More items…

What is case control study example?

A case-control study is a retrospective study that looks back in time to find the relative risk between a specific exposure (e.g. second hand tobacco smoke) and an outcome (e.g. cancer). A control group of people who do not have the disease or who did not experience the event is used for comparison.

What is the difference between a case control study and a cross sectional study?

Cross sectional studies are used to determine prevalence. They are relatively quick and easy but do not permit distinction between cause and effect. Case controlled studies compare groups retrospectively. They seek to identify possible predictors of outcome and are useful for studying rare diseases or outcomes.

Is a case control study a cohort study?

Case-control and cohort studies are observational studies that lie near the middle of the hierarchy of evidence. These types of studies, along with randomised controlled trials, constitute analytical studies, whereas case reports and case series define descriptive studies (1).